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bunmer:

redhester:

bunmer:


A young Jewish refugee with her Chinese playmates. Shanghai, China (x)

Between 1933 and 1941, it is estimated that 20,000 Jews escaped persecution by fleeing to the Chinese port of Shanghai. Shanghai was one of the few places in the world that would accept Jewish refugees at this time, Japan being another.

i am furious that i am just now learning about this important fact.

Because it has nothing to do with the USA being the superhero and saving all the Jews

I love that people are talking about this!
But I have a small nitpick. I wrote my MA thesis on this community. Knowing this, one of my former professors invited me to an event on Capitol Hill. This event was the kick-off to a week long exhibit about this community put on by the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum in cooperation with AJC East Asia Institute. And all the speakers could talk about was how China rescued the Jews and opened its arms to them. That is the narrative constructed as well by the Shanghai Refugees Museum.
And it makes me angry because China did not save these 17,000-20,000 refugees. Shanghai did not open its doors to them. That ~20,000 Jewish refugees were able to flee to Shanghai between 1938 and 1941 was actually an accident of Shanghai’s history. And I’m about to over-simplify a lot of history because I’m at work and I shouldn’t be on tumblr (but Shanghai I can’t resist). Because of nearly a century of imperialist engagement in Shanghai, by 1938 Shanghai was governed by three seperate parties: the Shanghai Municipal Council in the International Settlement, the Conseil in the French Concession, and the Japanese over the formerly Chinese governed section of Shanghai. 
All three of these governments were alarmed by the sudden influx of Jewish refugees. Especially because the city was already overwhelmed with millions of Chinese refugees fleeing Japanese aggression in the interior in the wake of the Second Sino-Japanese War. While the three governments came up with some permit systems and attempted to create bureaucratic hurdles, they didn’t really work together so none of the three could truly enforce any of the roadblocks they’d put up with the intention of stemming the flow of Jewish refugees. In the end, what ended Jewish overland and overseas travel to Shanghai was Italy’s entrance into WW2, and breakout of hostilities between Hitler and Stalin.
In reality, one of the very few countries which can arguably said to “saved the Jews” was the Dominican Republic, and even that only happened because of Trujillo’s own violently racist eugenic ideas about the benefits of European blood.

bunmer:

redhester:

bunmer:

A young Jewish refugee with her Chinese playmates. Shanghai, China (x)

Between 1933 and 1941, it is estimated that 20,000 Jews escaped persecution by fleeing to the Chinese port of Shanghai. Shanghai was one of the few places in the world that would accept Jewish refugees at this time, Japan being another.

i am furious that i am just now learning about this important fact.

Because it has nothing to do with the USA being the superhero and saving all the Jews

I love that people are talking about this!

But I have a small nitpick. I wrote my MA thesis on this community. Knowing this, one of my former professors invited me to an event on Capitol Hill. This event was the kick-off to a week long exhibit about this community put on by the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum in cooperation with AJC East Asia Institute. And all the speakers could talk about was how China rescued the Jews and opened its arms to them. That is the narrative constructed as well by the Shanghai Refugees Museum.

And it makes me angry because China did not save these 17,000-20,000 refugees. Shanghai did not open its doors to them. That ~20,000 Jewish refugees were able to flee to Shanghai between 1938 and 1941 was actually an accident of Shanghai’s history. And I’m about to over-simplify a lot of history because I’m at work and I shouldn’t be on tumblr (but Shanghai I can’t resist). Because of nearly a century of imperialist engagement in Shanghai, by 1938 Shanghai was governed by three seperate parties: the Shanghai Municipal Council in the International Settlement, the Conseil in the French Concession, and the Japanese over the formerly Chinese governed section of Shanghai. 

All three of these governments were alarmed by the sudden influx of Jewish refugees. Especially because the city was already overwhelmed with millions of Chinese refugees fleeing Japanese aggression in the interior in the wake of the Second Sino-Japanese War. While the three governments came up with some permit systems and attempted to create bureaucratic hurdles, they didn’t really work together so none of the three could truly enforce any of the roadblocks they’d put up with the intention of stemming the flow of Jewish refugees. In the end, what ended Jewish overland and overseas travel to Shanghai was Italy’s entrance into WW2, and breakout of hostilities between Hitler and Stalin.

In reality, one of the very few countries which can arguably said to “saved the Jews” was the Dominican Republic, and even that only happened because of Trujillo’s own violently racist eugenic ideas about the benefits of European blood.

Just a message to all of you starting grad school:

Take care of yourself. Graduate school is a statistically proven mentally and emotionally unhealthy environment. Figure out how the campus counseling center functions now, and remember that your mental and emotional health—not your professors’ demands—comes first.

No paper, no reading, no class, no adviser is more important than your mental and emotional health. Please remember that, and please be nice to yourself. 

posted 3 weeks ago
First Ottoman map of the United States, printed in 1803 during the first Barbary War. Courtesy of the Osher Map Library (link includes zooming feature).

First Ottoman map of the United States, printed in 1803 during the first Barbary War. Courtesy of the Osher Map Library (link includes zooming feature).

posted 1 month ago and tagged as history ottoman empire omg maps
stubblesmcgee asked:
Hey, thanks for taking the time to make the list. Regarding being an Amazon Affiliate, do you only get the money if someone buys the book through your link?

You’re welcome! I hope you enjoyed it. I also get commission if someone buys a different product in the same session within 24 hours of clicking through via my links.

ETA: sorry i meant to respond privately. stupid mobile functionality.

posted 1 month ago

I/P wrap up and some housekeeping

I hope you all enjoyed the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Bibliography. The bibliography in its entirety may be found here: Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Bibliography. A downloadable version maybe found here: yay pdf. Don’t tell my adviser that I numbered the title page and table of contents.

Now, I work with the Amazon Affiliates program. That means that when you click through to one of the book linked in my posts, on my page, or in that pdf, I get a tiny percentage of the price. It’s not a lot of money (I’m talking like, thirty cents), but honestly every little bit counts. If you put something on your Wish List via my list, I would really really appreciate it if, before you buy, you go back to the link served by me, and click through to the product from there.

And on the subject of money, I now have one of those donate buttons on my homepage. To be clear, I am not in desperate financial need, I’m not sick or in danger of losing my home or going without food, and I don’t have a child or pet depending on me. I am, however, in that awkward twenty-something period between finishing my Master’s degrees and having secure, full-time employment. I’m temping part time, which is great, but I do have less income than I had as a graduate student; and graduate student stipends are pretty small. So, if you feel like you want to donate something, the button is there. If you decide to do so, please include your name, mailing address, and url so I can write you a nice personalized thank you note. 

I know this post will annoy some of you and I apologize for that, but I’m just trying to utilize all potential resources until I have a full-time position.

posted 1 month ago

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Bibliography: Other

Intro/Methodology  •  Bronze Age Collapse-Roman Period    Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam and Caliphate Rule    Crusades, Medieval European Jewish History, and Sephardic Jewish History    Ottoman Empire  •  Early Modern and Modern European Jewish History    World War I, French Involvement, and the British Mandate in Palestine  • Holocaust History  •  History of Zionism    Post-1948    Middle Eastern and North African Jewish History    Arab Nationalism and the Modern Middle East    Historiography, Narratives, Memory, and Theory    American Does Stuff Too, and Books Which Span Multiple Categories

Other

Strangers in Their Homeland: A Critical Study of Israel’s Arab Citizens by Ra’anan Cohen

The Jewish State: A Century Later, Updated With a New Preface by Alan Dowty

Globalization and Geopolitics in the Middle East: Old games, new rules (Durham Modern Middle East and Islamic World) by Anoushiravan Ehteshami

Contemporary Israel: Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Security Challenges by Robert Freedman

Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy by Peter Gottschalk

The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology (The Contemporary Middle East) by Fred Halliday

The Resurgence of Anti-Semitism: Jews, Israel, and Liberal Opinion (Philosophy and the Global Context) by Bernard Harrison

The International Politics of the Middle East (Regional International Politics Series) by Raymond Hinnebusch

Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire by Deepa Kumar

The Changing Face of Anti-Semitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day by Walter Laqueur

American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945 by Douglas Little

Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State by Gregory S. Mahler

Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East since 1945 by Melani McAlister

Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967 by William B. Quandt

Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns (Tauber Institute Series for the Study of European Jewry) edited by Uzi Rebhun

Resurgent Antisemitism: Global Perspectives (Studies in Antisemitism) by Alvin H. Rosenfeld

The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land by Donna Rosenthal

The Multicultural Challenge in Israel (Israel: Society, Culture, and History) by Avi Sagi

Anti-Arab Racism in the USA: Where it Comes From and What it Means for Politics by Steven Salaita

Being Israeli: The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship (Cambridge Middle East Studies) by Gershon Shafir

Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination by Ehud Sprinzak

The World Through Arab Eyes: Arab Public Opinion and the Reshaping of the Middle East by Shibley Telhami

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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Bibliography: America Does Stuff Too, and Books Which Span Multiple Categories

Intro/Methodology  •  Bronze Age Collapse-Roman Period    Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam and Caliphate Rule    Crusades, Medieval European Jewish History, and Sephardic Jewish History    Ottoman Empire  •  Early Modern and Modern European Jewish History    World War I, French Involvement, and the British Mandate in Palestine  • Holocaust History  •  History of Zionism    Post-1948    Middle Eastern and North African Jewish History    Arab Nationalism and the Modern Middle East    Historiography, Narratives, Memory, and Theory

America Does Stuff Too

Crisis and Crossfire: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945 (Issues in the History of American Foreign Relations) by Peter L. Hahn

Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East: 1776 to the Present by Michael B. Oren

Books Which Span Multiple Categories

The Jews in Their Land in the Talmudic Age: 70-640 C.E by Gedaliah Alon

The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800 (Themes in Islamic History) by Jonathan P. Berkey

Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages by Mark R. Cohen

Israel / Palestine by Alan Dowty

The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War by James L. Gelvin

The Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction, Third Edition by Gregory Harms

Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Studies in Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Scripta Judaica, 3) by Jacob Katz

The Palestinian People: A History by Baruch Kimmerling

A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel by Gudrun Kramer

The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, 7th Edition by Walter Laqueur

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History by David W. Lesch

A Brief History of Ancient Israel by Victor H. Matthews

Jews and the Military: A History by Derek Penslar

The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World: The Jews of Palestine from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest by Peter Schäfer

The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad (Key Themes in Ancient History) by Seth Schwartz

Israel: A History (The Schusterman Series in Israel Studies) by Anita Shapira

Palestine in Late Antiquity by Hagith Sivan

Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History with Documents by Charles D. Smith

The Crusades, Christianity, and Islam (Bampton Lectures in America) by Jonathan Riley-Smith

Europe and the Islamic World: A History by John Tolan

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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Bibliography: Historiography, Narratives, Memory, and Theory

Intro/Methodology  •  Bronze Age Collapse-Roman Period    Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam and Caliphate Rule    Crusades, Medieval European Jewish History, and Sephardic Jewish History    Ottoman Empire  •  Early Modern and Modern European Jewish History    World War I, French Involvement, and the British Mandate in Palestine  • Holocaust History  •  History of Zionism  •  Post-1948  •  Middle Eastern and North African Jewish History  •  Arab Nationalism and the Modern Middle East

Historiography, Narratives, Memory, and Theory

Side by Side: Parallel Histories of Israel-Palestine by Sami Adwan

Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Revised Edition by Benedict Anderson

The Location of Culture (Routledge Classics) by Homi K. Bhabha

The Israel-Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories by Neil Caplan

Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) by Dipesh Chakrabarty

The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) by Partha Chatterjee

Memory, History, and the Extermination of the Jews of Europe by Saul Friedlander

Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism and the “Final Solution” edited by Saul Friedlander

Nations and Nationalism, Second Edition (New Perspectives on the Past) by Ernest Gellner

Remembering and Imagining Palestine: Identity and Nationalism from the Crusades to the Present by Haim Gerber

On Collective Memory (Heritage of Sociology Series) by Maurice Halbwachs

Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness by Rashid Khalidi

Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine: The Politics of National Commemoration (Cambridge Middle East Studies) by Laleh Khalili

Co-memory and Melancholia: Israelis Memorialising the Palestininan Nakba by Ronit Lentin

Exile and Return: Predicaments of Palestinians and Jews by Ann M. Lesch

From Empathy to Denial: Arab Responses to the Holocaust (Columbia/Hurst) by Meir Litvak

Palestinian Collective Memory and National Identity by Meir Litvak

Making Israel edited by Benny Morris

The Collective Memory Reader edited by Jeffrey K. Olick

Nakba: Palestine, 1948, and the Claims of Memory (Cultures of History) by Ahmad H. Sa’di

Orientalism by Edward Said

Shared Histories: A Palestinian-Israeli Dialogue by Paul Scham

The Ethnic Origins of Nations by Anthony D. Smith

Memories of Revolt: The 1936-1939 Rebellion and the Palestinian National Past by Ted Swedenburg

Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History by Michel-Rolph Trouillot

Post-Zionism, Post-Holocaust: Three Essays on Denial, Forgetting, and the Delegitimation of Israel by Elhanan Yakira

Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory (The Samuel and Althea Stroum Lectures in Jewish Studies) by Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi

Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition by Yael Zerubavel

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inquisitivition asked:
What do you think of Benny Morris's 1948? I noticed him absent from your list of good books for study of the Arab/Israeli Conflict.

see the Post-1948 category

I haven’t read it, but he’s incredibly historiographically important as one of the founders of the New Historians.

posted 1 month ago
haitianhistory:

Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.
According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)
Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”
Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 
⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 
Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)
So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.
⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)
At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 
To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:
The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))
Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are confortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornement. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

haitianhistory:

Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.

According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)

Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”

Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 

⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 

Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)

So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.

⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)

At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 

To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:

  • The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
  • The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))

Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are confortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornement. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

posted 1 month ago via haitianhistory and tagged as this is a REALLY good post